Consumer protection rules passed by the European Union in 2018 have recently come into force, and EU member countries are to implement them within the next two years. The rules aim to make online shopping more transparent and secure. Online retailers found to be violating the rules will face heavy fines of at least 4 percent of annual sales. Online vendors must now declare to consumers in advance whether they are companies or individuals. Consumers buying from private individuals will have fewer means of recourse in the event of problems or defects. Online search results for a product must clearly reveal whether the vendor has paid for high placement and what the criteria for said placement are. Companies are prohibited from paying for favorable reviews. When selling products for ostensible discounts or special prices, vendors must state the lowest price of the previous 30 days. In other words, vendors may not set their price high at the start only to draw in buyers later with a discount.