Runners wearing minimalist running shoes tend to experience more injuries than those in traditional shoes, according to a recent study by Griffith University in Australia. Biomechanical studies in laboratories, based on the observation of 99 runners over a three-month period, indicated that running barefoot, or close to it, shortens a person's stride, causing joints to flex less. A third of the participants were given partial-minimalist running shoes, or a full-minimalist shoe with separated toes, while the final third got a traditional running shoe, for comparison. Of the 23 injuries, four were among the runners wearing traditional shoes, 12 among those wearing partial-minimalist shoes, and seven among those wearing full-minimalist shoes. Runners wearing the full-minimalist shoes also reported higher rates of shin and calf pain than the others. Nonetheless, the authors of the study said that runners should not be discouraged from trying minimalist shoes, as long as the switch to minimal shoes or barefoot is done gradually so that their body can adapt.